Lightning and emergency systems of Markovec tunnel
In the previous blog post, we described our traffic automation system, advanced video surveillance, and ventilation in the Markovec Tunnel. In this week’s blog post, we will be focusing on tunnel lighting, technical fire alarm, and emergency call systems.
In the tunnel we have implemented all the necessary lighting types: general lighting, emergency lighting, escape directional lightning, lighting for threshold niches, outdoor lighting, and additional lighting in case of two-way traffic. The lighting system adjusts all the lights to the drivers’ vision when arriving in the tunnel (so the difference is mitigated).
Lighting wires have been added to the tubes and installed in a concrete vault during the construction phase (powered by individual groups of lamps). For transitional lighting, we used lamps with asymmetric optics in versions of types 400W, 250W, 150W, and 100W, including high-pressure sodium lamps. The lighting system regulates the lights using ten different levels; the position and the level of individual lights are different, based on tunnel section (approaching the tunnel, the start, the central part, and the tunnel end). Normally, we use the automatic control system, though the remote engineer from the control center in Kozina can also control the individual stages.
In the event of an emergency – e.g. a fire – the system automatically switches on the lighting throughout the tube. In the event of a fire, flue gases cover the ceiling lighting, and therefore special safety lighting is installed in the tunnel tube at a height of 1 meter above the pedestrian passage. The gases do not hide the lamps, so all the exit lights are visible.
Figure 1: Escape lighting in the tunnel
On both tunnel exits, an adjusted outdoor lighting system is added, allowing smoother transition from the well-lit tunnel to the darker surroundings at night. In addition to lighting and traffic signs, we added two-sided LED lights on the edges of the corridor for greater transparency and security. White lights indicate the direction of travel, and the red lights indicate the opposite direction.
When all designs and constructions were finished, all the planned lightning and the accuracy of the design parameters were additionally tested with appropriate electrical and technical measurements.
Technical fire alarm system
The technical fire alarm system in the Markovec Tunnel at any moment determines the location of the fire.
In the facilities, manual and automatic smoke detectors are installed. Due to considerable lengths, three control stations are placed in the tunnel, each covering its section of the tunnel.
Fire is also detected using the video detection system. Often, in the event of a fire, flue gases are generated before the temperature rises, which is detected very quickly by the automatic detection system. From the pictures below, it is evident that during the fire test in the tunnel, the video detection system detected a fire in the tunnel in 28 seconds.
Figure 2: Fire detection with video detection system
The emergency call system
The emergency call system inside the tunnel has been connected to the emergency call on route and to the control center. You will find all the installed devices in the pillars, in emergency cabs, and in the cabinets, and you can activate the call by pressing the call button located on the front panel. When the call is finished, the standby mode is automatically restored. All events are presented on a graph and in a table, and all conversations are stored, allowing simple access and review of all information.